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Social Media and Human Rights


Academic texts

Bassett, Elizabeth H., and Kate O’Riordan. 2002. “Ethics of Internet Research: Contesting the Human Subjects Research Model.” Ethics and Information Technology 4(3):233–47.

Beaulieu, Anne, and Adolfo Estalella. 2012. “Rethinking Research Ethics for Mediated Settings.” Information, Communication & Society 15(1):23–42.

Boellstorff, Tom, Bonnie Nardi, Celia Pearce, T. L. Taylor, and George E. Marcus. 2012. Ethnography and Virtual Worlds: A Handbook of Method. Princeton University Press.

boyd, danah. Forthcoming. “Making Sense of Teen Life: Strategies for Capturing Ethnographic Data in a Networked Era.” in Digital Research Confidential: The Secrets of Studying Behavior Online, edited by E. Hargittai and C. Sandvig. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Gatson, Sarah N., and Amanda Zweerink. 2004. “Ethnography Online: ‘Natives’ Practising and Inscribing Community.” Qualitative Research 4(2):179–200.

Geiger, R. Stuart, and David Ribes. 2011. “Trace Ethnography: Following Coordination through Documentary Practices.” Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Retrieved (

Haigh, Carol, and Neil A. Jones. 2005. “An Overview of the Ethics of Cyber-Space Research and the Implication for Nurse Educators.” Nurse Education Today 25(1):3–8.

Hine, Christine. 2005. Virtual Methods. Oxford; New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

Hine, Christine. 2008a. “Internet Research as Emergent Practice.” Pp. 525–41 in Handbook of Emergent Methods, edited by Sharlene Nagy Hesse-Biber and Patricia Leavy. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Hine, Christine. 2008b. “Overview: Virtual Ethnography: Modes, Varieties, Affordances.” Pp. 257–70 in Handbook of Online Research Methods, edited by Nigel Fielding, Raymond M. Lee, and Grant Blank. London, UK: Sage.

Hine, Christine. 2012. The Internet. 1 edition. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press.

Hine, Christine M. 2000. Virtual Ethnography. 1 edition. London ; Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Hooley, Tristram, John Marriott, and Jane Wellens. 2012. What Is Online Research?  Using the Internet for Social Science Research. Bloomsbury Academic. Retrieved (

Horst, Heather, Larissa Hjorth, and Jo Tacchi. 2012. “Rethinking Ethnography: An Introduction.” Media International Australia 145:86–93.

Karpf, David. 2012. “Social Science Research Methods in Internet Time.” Information, Communication & Society 15(5):639–61.

Garcia, Angela Cora, Alecea I. Standlee, Jennifer Bechkoff, and Yan Cui. 2009. “Ethnographic Approaches to the Internet and Computer-Mediated Communication.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 38(1):52–84.
Kendall, Lori. 2002. Hanging Out in the Virtual Pub. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Retrieved July 15, 2014 (

Kozinets, Robert V. 2009. Netnography: Doing Ethnographic Research Online. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Markham, Annette, and Nancy K. Baym. 2008. Internet Inquiry: Conversations About Method. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, Inc. Retrieved (

Markham, Annette N. 1998. Life Online: Researching Real Experience in Virtual Space. 1St Edition edition. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.

Marshall, Jon Paul. 2010. “Ambiguity, Oscillation and Disorder: Online Ethnography and the Making of Culture.” Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 2(3):1–22.

Miller, Daniel. 2011. Tales from Facebook. 1 edition. Cambridge, UK ; Malden, MA: Polity.

Miller, Daniel, and Heather Horst, eds. 2012. Digital Anthropology. London, UK: Berg.

Murthy, Dhiraj. 2008. “Digital Ethnography: An Examination of the Use of New Technologies for Social Research.” Sociology 42(5):837–55.

Postill, John. 2011. Localizing the Internet: An Anthropological Account. New York: Berghahn Books.

Postill, John. 2014. “Democracy in an Age of Viral Reality: A Media Epidemiography of Spain’s Indignados Movement.” Ethnography 15(1):51–69.

Postill, John, and Sarah Pink. 2012. “Social Media Ethnography: The Digital Researcher in a Messy Web.” Media International Australia 145:123–34.

Rode, Jennifer. 2011. “Reflexivity in Digital Anthropology.” CHI 2011. Retrieved (

Other resources

Association of Internet Researchers

Digital Ethnography Research Centre

Ethnography Matters

National Centre for Research Methods Digital Ethnography Training Workshop

OxDEG: The Oxford Digital Ethnography Group

Social Media Collective at Microsoft Research

UCL MSc in Digital Anthropology


About this website

This is the website for Ella McPherson's work related to her 2014-17 ESRC-funded research project, Social Media, Human Rights NGOs, and the Potential for Governmental Accountability.